Napoleon Bonaparte (1769 - 1821 a.t.b) was born in the French held island of Corsica. Despite his father being Italian, he was able to gain French citizenship, and became a military and political leader who successfully led France after the events of the French revolution.
After the French victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805 a.t.b. against the British Empire and Admiral Horatio Nelson, he proceeded to occupy the British Isles (assisted by Scottish revolutionaries), which either became a part of the French Republic or had a new puppet government established. That caused the monarchy, nobility and monarchist supporters to be exiled to the Americas, where Washington's Rebellion was recently neutralized, and from there they established the Holy Britannian Empire.
In 1821 a.t.b, Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo, ending the possibility of reconquering Russia. From there on, there have been various theories about his death. While the official story is that the public executed him upon return, due to the suspicion that he would declare himself emperor and become yet another tyrant, there are also rumors that he died on his way back to France, after his food was poisoned by assassins in accordance to Elizabeth III's will. Her last words included the famous line, "I do not forget slights to my honor." His victories in Europe led to the foundation of the Europia United, albeit he is still remembered as an ambitious dictator.
Centuries later, E.U. General Gene Smilas hoped to succeed where Napoleon had failed and become Emperor of Europe, believing that the dictatorship of one skilled man would be more beneficial for Europia and save it from the corruption and money worship of the E.U.'s capitalist elites, as well as the expansion of Euro Britannia. However, like Napoleon, Smiles would ultimately fail.
C.C. once hinted Lelouch reminded her of Napoleon, as if she had also met him, along with George Washington and Benjamin Franklin.
For more information on the real person, see Napoleon Bonaparte